classes/ - PMC compiler (Version 2)


Create classes/foo.dump:

    % perl classes/ --dump classes/foo.pmc ...

Create vtable.dump:

    % perl classes/ --vtable

Print a class tree for the specified PMCs:

    % perl classes/ --tree classes/*.pmc

Create classes/foo.c and pmc_foo.h from classes/foo.dump:

    % perl classes/ -c classes/foo.pmc ...

Create fooX.c and pmc_fooX.h from fooX.dump files, also create libfoo.c containing the initialization function for all fooX PMCs.

    % perl classes/ --library libfoo -c \
           classes/foo1.pmc classes/foo2.pmc ...


The job of the PMC compiler is to take .pmc files and create C files which can be compiled for use with the Parrot interpreter.

Command-line Options ^


Increase debug level


Increase verbose level


Omit source line info


Emit an empty body in the dump. This may be useful for debugging.


Specify include path where to find PMCs.


Specifiy the library name. This will create <libname>.c and pmc_<libname>.h. The initialization function will be named after libname and will initialize all PMCs in the library.

Internals ^

To see the internal data structures please run:

    % perl classes/ --c --deb --deb sarray.pmc | less

Compiling PMCs ^

First, the program determines the names of the .c and .h files from the basename of the .pmc file (e.g. perlint.pmc -> perlint.c and perlint.h).

Next, the file is searched for /pmclass \w*/ which attempts to find the class being declared.

Once the class is found, all of its superclasses are scanned and their methods added to the methods of the current PMC. PMCs default to inheriting from 'default'. Only single inheritance is supported.

Once the superclass is determined, it is processed and its method names are extracted and saved.

Next, each method body is processed with various directives (see below) getting replaced by their appropriate values.

Finally, the .c and .h files are generated. The appropriate base class header files are included.

If the noinit flag was used, then no init function is generated. Otherwise, one is generated which sets up the vtable and enters it into the Parrot_base_vtables array.

The .c file is generated by appending the functions after the various directives have been replaced.

PMC File Syntax ^

The basic syntax of a PMC file is

  1. A preamble, consisting of code to be copied directly to the .c file
  2. The pmclass declaration:
  3.         pmclass PMCNAME [extends PMCPARENT] [flags] {

    where flags are:

    extends PMCPARENT

    All methods not defined in PMCNAME are inherited from the PMCPARENT class. If no parent class is defined, methods from default.pmc are used.


    This class cannot be instantiated. Abstract classes are shown with lower case class names in the class tree.


    Used with abstract: No class_init code is generated.


    Classes with this flag get 2 vtables and 2 enums, one pair with read/write set methods, and one with read-only set methods.


    The class needs a PMC_EXT structure. For instance, any class using PMC_data will have need_ext.

    does interface

    The class 'does' the given interfaces (the collection of methods which the class implements).

    The default is "scalar". Other currently used interfaces are:


    The class is a dynamic class. These have a special class_init routine suitable for dynamic loading at runtime. See the dynclasses directory for an example.

    group GROUP

    The class is part of a group of interrelated PMCs that should be compiled together into a single shared library of the given name. Only valid for dynamic PMCs.

  4. A list of vtable method implementations
  5. The final close }

Method Body Substitutions ^

The vtable method bodies can use the following substitutions:


Converted to the current PMC object of type PMC *.


Converted to the interpreter object.


Calls the static vtable method 'method' in OtherClass.


Calls the vtable method 'method' using the static type of SELF (in other words, calls another method defined in the same file).


Calls the vtable method 'method' using the dynamic type of SELF.


Same as above, but calls the current method.


Calls the overridden implementation of the current method in OtherClass.


Calls the overridden implementation of the current method in the nearest superclass, using the static type of SELF.


As above, but uses the actual dynamic type of SELF.


Leopold Toetsch.

Many thanks to the author of, many useful code pieces got reused.