|parrotcode: calling conventions|
|Contents | IMCC|
PIR - calling conventions
This document describes subroutine and method calling conventions.
As imcc does register allocation, it has to track the life span of variables. This includes the (possible) data flow in and out of subroutines.
newsub $P0, .Sub, _sub_label newsub $P1, .Continuation, ret_addr ... .pcc_begin prototyped|non_prototyped .arg x # I5 .arg y # I6 .arg z # I7 .pcc_call $P0, $P1 # r = _sub_label(x, y, z) ret_addr: .local int r # optional - new result var .result r .pcc_end
... # variable decls r = _sub_label(x, y, z) (r1[, r2 ...]) = _sub_label(x, y, z) _sub_label(x, y, z)
Instead of the label a Subroutine object can be used too:
find_global $P0, "_sub_label" $P0(args)
.sub _sub_label [Subpragma, ...] .param int a # I5 .param int b # I6 .param int c # I7 ... .pcc_begin_return .return xy # e.g. I5 .pcc_end_return ... .end
An alternative syntaxs allow to express a return in one line. The surrounded parentheses are mandatory . Besides making sequence break more conspiscuous, this is necessary to distinguish this syntax from other uses of the .return directive that will be probably deprecated.
.return ( a, b ) # return the values of a and b .return () # return no value
Similarly, one can yield using the .yield directive
.yield ( a, b ) # yield with the values of a and b .yield () # yield with no value
This is a comma separated list of zero or more items with the following meaning:
Specify calling convention
Define "main" entry point to start execution.
Run this subroutine during the load_library opcode. @LOAD is ignored, if another subroutine in that file is marked with @MAIN.
Declare subroutine being a method.
If a subroutine definition has no prototyped specifier, code gets emitted to receive parameters by both flavors.
Currently needs the .Class syntax, i.e. a dot in front of the class name.
Takes either 2 arguments: the sub and the return continuation, or the sub only. For the latter case an invokecc gets emitted. Providing an explicit return continuation is more efficient, if its created outside of a loop and the call is done inside a loop.
Only the top half of registers are preserved currently.
The .param declarations must be the first statements in the sub if any. No other statements are allowed between .param - not even comments currently.
If there is no return value and the return should be the last instruction of the subroutine, this declaration pair can be omitted. Parrot provides an invoke P1 as last instruction automatically.
The reserved words
argcN hold the count of passed parameters (or return values) according to docs/pdds/pdd03_calling_conventions.pod. The variable
is_prototyped is an alias for
The syntax is very similar to subroutine calls. The call is done with
meth_call which must immediately be preceded by the
.local pmc class .local pmc obj newclass class, "Foo" find_type $I0, "Foo" new obj, $I0 .pcc_begin prototyped|non_prototyped .arg x # I5 .arg y # I6 .arg z # I7 .invocant obj .meth_call "_method" [, $P1 ] # r = obj."_method"(x, y, z) .local int r # optional - new result var .result r .pcc_end
The return continuation is optional. The method can be a string constant or a string variable.
r = obj."_method"(args) (r1, r2) = obj."_method"(args) obj."_method"(args)
.namespace [ "Foo" ] .sub _sub_label method [,Subpragma, ...] .param int a # I5 .param int b # I6 .param int c # I7 ... self."_other_meth"() ... .pcc_begin_return .return xy # e.g. I5 .pcc_end_return ... .end
The variable "self" automatically refers to the invocating object, if the subroutine declaration contains "method".
Restore namespace to the global namespace:
.namespace [ "" ]
load_lib $P0, "libname" dlfunc $P1, $P0, "funcname", "signature" ... .pcc_begin prototyped .arg x # I5 .arg y # I6 .arg z # I7 .nci_call $P1 # r = funcname(x, y, z) .local int r # optional - new result var .result r .pcc_end
This prepares parameters as described in pdd03_calling_conventions.pod, saves the registers and invokes the function. The .arg pseudo ops put the given argument into increasing registers of the appropriate type.
Arguments are saved in reverse order onto the user stack:
.arg y # save args in reversed order .arg x call _foo #(r, s) = _foo(x,y) .local int r .local int s .result r # restore results in order .result s #
and return values are restored in argument order from there.
The subroutine is responsible for preserving registers.
.sub _foo # sub foo(int a, int b) saveall .param int a # receive arguments from left to right .param int b ... .return mi # return (pl, mi), push results .return pl # in reverse order restoreall ret .end
Pushing arguments in reversed order on the user stack makes the left most argument the top of stack entry. This allows for a variable number of function arguments (and return values), where the left most argument before a variable number of following arguments is the argument count.
Implemented. When the subroutine is in the same compilation unit, the callee can saveall registers; when the subroutine is in a different compilation unit, the callee must preserve all used registers.
IMCC tries to keep track of the address where the invoke will branch to, but can only succeed to do so when the set_addr and the invoke opcodes are located together.
$P10 = new Sub $I1 = addr _the_sub $P10 = $I1 invoke $P10 # ok
bsr get_addr invoke $P10 # error ... get_addr: $P10 = new Sub $I1 = addr _the_sub $P10 = $I1 ret
The latter example will very likely lead to an incorrect CFG and thus to incorrect register allocation.
Implemented. When the subroutine does saveall/restoreall, the branch from the ret statement back is ignored in the CFG.
- Should imcc keep track of pad opcodes? - Should imcc even emit such opcodes from e.g. .local directives?
imcc/imcc.y, imcc/t/syn/bsr.t, imcc/t/syn/pcc.t, imcc/t/syn/objects.t, docs/pdds/pdd03_calling_conventions.pod
Leopold Toetsch <email@example.com>