# NAME

math.ops - Mathematical Opcodes

# DESCRIPTION

Parrot's library of mathematical ops.

To use this library of ops, add this directive to your PIR:

.loadlib 'math_ops'

## General Math

**cmod**(out INT, in INT, in INT)**cmod**(invar PMC, invar PMC, in INT)**cmod**(invar PMC, invar PMC, invar PMC)
NOTE: This "uncorrected mod" algorithm uses the C language's built-in mod operator (x % y), which is
**cmod**(out NUM, in NUM, in NUM)**cmod**(invar PMC, invar PMC, in NUM)
NOTE: This "uncorrected mod" algorithm uses the built-in C math library's fmod() function, which computes

... the remainder when x is divided by y, and thus is zero when y divides x exactly. ... The direction of truncation for / and the sign of the result for % are machine-dependent for negative operands, as is the action taken on overflow or underflow. -- [1], page 41Also:

... if the second operand is 0, the result is undefined. Otherwise, it is always true that (a/b)*b + a%b is equal to z. If both operands are non-negative, then the remainder is non- negative and smaller than the divisor; if not, it is guaranteed only that the absolute value of the remainder is smaller than the absolute value of the divisor. -- [1], page 205This op is provided for those who need it (such as speed-sensitive applications with heavy use of mod, but using it only with positive arguments), but a more mathematically useful mod based on ** floor(x/y) and defined with y == 0 is provided by the mod op.

[1] Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie, *The C Programming Language*, Second Edition. Prentice Hall, 1988.If the denominator is zero, a 'Divide by zero' exception is thrown.

... the remainder of dividing x by y. The return value is x - n * y, where n is the quotient of x / y, rounded towards zero to an integer. -- fmod() manpage on RedHat Linux 7.0In addition, fmod() returns

the remainder, unless y is zero, when the function fails and errno is set.According to page 251 of [1], the result when y is zero is implementation- defined.This op is provided for those who need it, but a more mathematically useful numeric mod based on floor(x/y) instead of truncate(x/y) and defined with y == 0 is provided by the mod op.

[1] Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie, *The C Programming Language*, Second Edition. Prentice Hall, 1988.If the denominator is zero, a 'Divide by zero' exception is thrown.

## Pseudorandom number operations

These operations perform various pseudorandom number operations.

**rand**(out NUM)
Set $1 to a random floating point number between 0 and 1, inclusive.
**rand**(out INT)
Set $1 to a random integer between **rand**(out NUM, in NUM)
Set $1 to a random floating point number between 0 and and $2, inclusive.
**rand**(out INT, in INT)
Set $1 to a integer between 0 and and $2, inclusive.
**rand**(out NUM, in NUM, in NUM)
Set $1 to a random floating point number between $2 and and $3, inclusive.
**srand**(in NUM)
Set the random number seed to $1. $1 is casted to an INTVAL.
**srand**(in INT)
Set the random number seed to $1.
**rand**(out INT, in INT, in INT)
Set $1 to a integer between $2 and and $3, inclusive.

`[-2^31, 2^31)`

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# COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2001-2011, Parrot Foundation.

# LICENSE

This program is free software. It is subject to the same license as the Parrot interpreter itself.